Painting Luca PacioliAccounting as an art based on mathematical logic - now known as double-entry bookkeeping - has been understood in Italy since 1495 when Luca Pacioli (1445 - 1517), also known as Friar (Romo) Luca Dal Borgo,published his book on "bookkeeping" in Venice. The first English-language book was known to be published in London by John Gouge or Gough in 1543.A brief booklet featuring accounting instructions was also published in 1588 by John Mellis of Southwark, which is contained in his words, "collected,published, made, And set forth by one Hugh Oldcastle, Scholemaster, who, as appeareth by histreatise, then taught Arithmetics, and this booke in Saint Ollaves parish in Marko Lane." ("I am the reformer and reviverer of the ancient copy printed here in London on August 14, 1543: collected, published, made and appointed by a Hugh Oldcastle, Scholemaster, which,appears in his treatise, which then teaches Arithmetic, and In the parish of Saint Ollaves at Marko Lane. ") John Mellis refers to the fact that the accounting principle he describes (which is a simple system of double entries) is" after the forme of Venice ".
In the early 18th century, the services of a London-based accountant had been used during an investigation of a director of the South Sea Company, which was trading the company's exchange. During this investigation,the accountant tested at least two company books.The report is described in Sawbridge and Company, by Charles Snell,Writing Master and Accountant in Foster Lane, London. The United Statesowes the concept of the purpose of a UK Registered Public Accountant who has Chartered Accountant in the 19th century.